Poisonous Plants Commonly Found in Pastures

Assorted poisonous plants.Pastures often contain weeds that are potentially dangerous to livestock. The toxic compounds in plants are usually a defense mechanism against predation and have a distinct, unpleasant odor or a bitter taste and are not preferentially grazed. Consumption of unpalatable plants will increase under some circumstances, primarily if other forage is not available. Understanding the dangers and various management strategies to control toxic plants will reduce the risk to your livestock.

Grazing management is a critical component to maintaining pastures free of poisonous weeds. Avoiding overgrazing will help maintain an abundance of desirable forage plants that are able to compete with weeds and reduce the risk of livestock being forced to eat poisonous plants because no other forage options are available. Grazing pressure should be reduced during dry periods as drought can increase consumption of poisonous plants if there is a decrease of other forage.

Plant growth-stages can influence the palatability and toxicity of certain plants, as can climate and time of year. Some plants, like those that accumulate nitrates, can increase in toxicity after rainfall or on cool, cloudy mornings and evenings. Some plants become more palatable, while remaining toxic, after a frost. Many toxic plants have specific growth stages or plant parts that are most toxic, such as tall larkspur that becomes most palatable and most toxic while it bolts and sets flowers. Understanding the conditions under which plants are most harmful and avoiding grazing pastures when plants are most toxic will greatly reduce the chances of livestock being harmed.

Poisonous weeds can also become more palatable after herbicide application. Care must be taken to manage weeds when livestock will not be adversely affected. Pastures should not be grazed for three weeks after applying herbicides when poisonous species are present in most cases. Broad spectrum herbicides can also have unintended effects on desirable plants if used incorrectly. Care must be taken when applying herbicides to minimize drift and over spraying. As with all weed control, competitive desirable plants should be seeded as quickly as possible following weed removal to prevent the reinfestation of the area with other weed species.

The best way to protect livestock from toxic weeds is to develop and implement a comprehensive weed control program integrating cultural, chemical, physical and biological weed management.  Two particularly important control methods are mowing and herbicide use. Mowing will reduce the likelihood of seed development and dispersal and persistent spot spraying will eliminate particularly harmful weed populations.

Plant Causing Nitrate & Oxalate Poisoning

Some plants absorb excess nitrates or oxalates from the soil and store them in plant tissues.  Toxicity problems can occur in animals which feed on these plants.

Redroot Pigweed Lambsquarter
Common Mallow Dock


Plants Causing Liver Disease & Sunlight Sensitivity

Plants causing liver disease and photosensitation (sensitivity to sunlight) are often grouped together, as photosensitivity is often a secondary symptom of liver disease cause by poisonous plants.Onion

Onion Flixweed/Tansy Mustard
Horsetail and Scouring Rush St. Johnswort
Western Bracken Fern False Lupine
Puncture Vine Clover
Cowcockle Cocklebur


Plants Causing Organ Failure

This group of plants contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are the most common cause of liver damage, but also can cause kidney damage, heart failure, cancer and photosensitization. Animals typically will not readily eat plants with pyrrolizidine alkaloids, unless no other forage is available.

Fiddleneck Houndstongue
Tansy Ragwort and Groundsels Comfrey


Plants Causing Cyanide Poisoning

This group of plants contain cyanogenic glycosides that are converted to hydrogen cyanide or prussic acid when the plant cells are damaged.  Chronic poisoning over time causes loss of nerve function while acute poisoning causes death.

Russian Knapweed            Hemp Dogbane
Yellow Star Thistle Western Water Hemlock
Poison Hemlock Wild Carrot
Larkspur Black Cherry & Chokecherry
Clover Arrowgrass


Plants Affecting Cardiovascular Health

Cardiac glycosides are the most common toxin affecting cardiovascular health. Generally all parts of the plant are highly toxic and lethal if eaten in small quantities.  However, animals typically will not readily eat these unpalatable plants, unless no other forage is available.

Milkweeds

Foxglove

Nightshades


Plants Causing Irritation

Plants in this group contain compounds that may irritate an animal's digestive tract, mouth or skin if consumed.  These plants are not generally palatable and are typically avoided.

Horseweed/FleabaneButtercup

Leafy Spurge

Western Juniper

Buttercup

Wooly/Hairy Vetch


Plants Causing Physical Injury

Many plants have characteristic that can cause injury to grazing animals.  Some grasses can be palatable when young, but can cause injury to the nose, eyes, mouth and ears of grazing animals when plants mature with long awns.

Riggut Brome Cheat
Longspine Sand bur
Velvet grasses Foxtail Barley
Hare Baley Medusahead
Puncture Vine Stinging Nettle

Stinging Nettle

Materials on this page are provided by:

Andy Hulting, Extension Weed Specialist, Dept of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University
Karin Neff, Former Faculty Research Assistant, Dept of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University
Mylen Bohle, Extension Forage and Crop Management, Crook County OSU Extension Service
David Hannaway, Forage Research and Extension, Dept of Crop and Soil Science, Oregon State University