Biodiversity and Pest Management

Also see pest management sections under specific crops.

“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” (B Franklin, 1706-1790). Pest prevention is a central component of integrated pest management and organic pest management strategies. Crop rotation and crop planning (i.e. timing and spacing), good nutrient and water management, enhancing natural enemies and choosing disease or insect resistant varieties will enhance the resilience of your farm. When these methods are insufficient it is sometimes necessary to use natural or synthetic pesticides to manage pests well enough to produce high quality crops. Insect, disease and weed management resources are highlighted below.

Biodiversity

OSU Farmscaping for Beneficials program - OSU, the Xerces Society and Oregon Tilth have initiated a partnership to develop a grower-based program in conservation biological control (CBC) and pollinator conservation.

Landmarks in Conservation DVD - Landmarks in Conservation is a groundbreaking project - a multimedia tool that helps rural landowners, farmers, ranchers and foresters devise a plan for their future. This interactive journey provides opportunities to learn from fellow land managers, explore the latest research and create resource management plans that address the unique characteristics of any property. When viewed on a personal computer with an Internet connection, Landmarks in Conservation becomes a gateway to unlimited learning experiences!

Biodiversity Conservation: An Organic Farmer’s Guide - The goal of this guide is to increase the use of organic farming practices and other land management techniques that conserve biodiversity and the natural resources of organic farming systems, and to help farmers and ranchers comply with the NOP Rule.

Habitat in Agricultural Landscapes - Agricultural landscapes can make a meaningful contribution to conservation by providing natural habitat that, when combined with similar efforts across a landscape, meets the needs of multiple species.On many farms, opportunities exist to accommodate the needs of local species with only minor changes to farming practices.

The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation - The Xerces Society is a nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. For forty years, the Society has been at the forefront of invertebrate protection worldwide, harnessing the knowledge of scientists and the enthusiasm of citizens to implement conservation programs.

Pest Management - general

OSU Integrated Plant Protection Center - The IPPC mission is to be one of the leading research and extension organizations nationally and internationally in integrated pest and production management (IPPM) systems.

Pest and crop models -  This website brings together US weather data and plant pest and disease models to serve many decision support needs in agriculture. Currently this site provides over 80 degree-day and 21 hourly weather-driven models serving many IPM, regulatory, plant biosecurity, biological control, and conservation uses for the full USA, with emphasis on IPM needs for the Western States.

Photo Collections

PNW Insect Management Handbook - This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. - See more at: http://pnwhandbooks.org/insect/#sthash.x2aoCBbB.dpuf

This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. - See more at: http://pnwhandbooks.org/insect/#sthash.x2aoCBbB.dpuf
This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. - See more at: http://pnwhandbooks.org/insect/#sthash.x2aoCBbB.dpuf

Insect Photos - This page is devoted to information for identifying and managing insect pests.

OSU Plant Disease Photos - This handbook is intended as a ready reference guide to the control and management tactics for the more important plant diseases in the Pacific Northwest. This handbook has not been made to include all of the plant diseases that could possibly occur in the Pacific Northwest.

Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook - This handbook is designed as a quick and ready reference for weed control practices and herbicides used in various cropping systems or sites in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. This handbook will be useful to Extension agents, company field representatives, commercial spray applicators and consultants, herbicide dealers, teachers, and producers.

Vegetable Insect Pest Photos - This site is dedicated to Integrated Pest Management for the home vegetable garden. IPM uses four key strategies to control pest damage while fostering environmental awareness and stewardship, such as plant genetic resistance to pests and disease, biological control (the use of one organism to control another), environmental and cultural (favorable for the plant, unfavorable for the pest), chemical - the last resort.

UC Weed photo gallery - The UC IPM Weed Photo Gallery includes many, but not all, weed species commonly found in California farms and landscapes.

Weeds photo gallery - United States weed photo gallery by species.

Weeds photo gallery - Alphabetical list of weed identification. Weed Images is a joint project of the University of Georgia’s Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the Weed Science Society of America.

Pests and Beneficial: photo collection - Photo collection by Debbie Roos.

Insect, Mite & Rodent Management

PNW Insect Management Handbook - This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. This handbook is intended as a tool for making decisions regarding the control and management of important insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. Originally, it was written for commercial growers, county extension agents, consultants, field and nursery staff, and chemical industry representatives. - See more at: http://pnwhandbooks.org/insect/#sthash.cJ0YsNMk.dpuf

A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America - This guide provides photographs and descriptions of biological control (or biocontrol) agents of insect, disease, and weed pests in North America. It is also a tutorial on the concept and practice of biological control and integrated pest management (IPM).

A Guide to Ecological Strategies - This publication highlights ecological strategies that improve your farm’s natural defenses and encourage beneficial insects to attack your worst pests. Learn about the principles of ecologically based pest management and the strategies of farmers around the world to address insect problems.

How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides - Commercially managed honey bees pollinate a variety of crops in the West Coast region of the United States, including almonds, tree fruits, berries, kiwis, cotton, cucurbits, and crops grown for seed. This activity is economically significant.

Using Nematodes for Crop Insect Pest Control - Nematodes are non-segmented, elongated roundworms that are colorless, without appendages, and usually microscopic. There are non-beneficial and beneficial nematodes.

Pocket Gophers in Agricultural Crops - This publication describes activities designed to reduce damages by pocket gophers to hay, grain, and orchard crops.

Controlling Ground Squirrel Damage - Ground squirrels are a major wildlife pest in central and eastern Oregon. They consume substantial amounts of forage and field crops, and their burrow systems can damage ditches, dams, and farm equipment.

Controlling Moles - Moles belong to the mammalian order Insectivora, the insect eaters. Often, however, they are lumped incorrectly with the rodents, which include mice, rats, squirrels, and other gnawing mammals in the order Rodentia. Moles are found throughout the eastern half of the United States and along the Pacific Coast.

Plant Disease Management

PNW Plant Disease Management Handbook - This handbook is intended as a ready reference guide to the control and management tactics for the more important plant diseases in the Pacific Northwest. This has not been made to include all of the plant diseases that could possibly occur in the Pacific Northwest.

Plant Disease Diagnostics Compendium - This article presents the various steps/activities which are associated with accurate plant disease diagnosis. The process may vary with different diseases and conditions but the overall process is relatively consistent. The steps all require careful observations and questions

Weed Management

PNW Weed Management Handbook - This handbook is designed as a quick and ready reference for weed control practices and herbicides used in various cropping systems or sites in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. This handbook will be useful to Extension agents, company field representatives, commercial spray applicators and consultants, herbicide dealers, teachers, and producers.

Weed ‘Em and Reap - OSU videos of weed control tools and reduced tillage systems in use on farms.

OSU Herbarium - The Oregon State University Herbarium houses approximately 405,000 vascular plant, bryophyte, algal, and fungal specimens. The collections are worldwide in scope, with a focus on the state of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest.

Perennial Weed Biology and Management - Perennial plants live at least 2 years; some live for decades. Most perennial weeds reproduce both by seed and by the spread of energy-storing vegetative parts, such as roots or tubers. This combination of reproductive mechanisms makes management of perennial weeds difficult. By understanding how perennial weeds reproduce and spread, you will be better able to plan a successful weed management strategy.

Steel in the Field: A Farmer's Guide to Weed Management Tools - Weed control demands time, labor and expense for every farmer every year. This publication shows how today's implements and techniques can control weeds while reducing—or eliminating—herbicides.

Biology and management of specific weeds: Oregon State University & Washington State University

African Rue Milk Thistle
Annual and Perennial Sowthistles Mouse-Ear Hawkweed
Bedstraw Poison Oak and Poison Ivy
Bighead Knapweed Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris)
Blackberry Purple and Iberian Starthistle
Blackberry Red Sorrel
Blackgrass Rupturewort
Blue Mustard Rush Skeletonweed
Buffalobur (Solanum rostratum Dunal) Russian Thistle
Bulbous Bluegrass Saltmeadow Cordgrass
Common Groundsel Scotch Broom
Common and German Velvetgrass Short-Fringed Knapweed
Creeping Buttercup Silverleaf Nightshade
Curly Dock and Broadleaf Dock Skeletonleaf Bursage
Death Camas Slenderflower, Italian & Plumeless Thistle
Distaff Thistle Small Bugloss
Downy Brome Squarrose Knapweed
Dwarf Snapdragon St. Johnswort
Dyers Woad Sulfur Cinquefoil
Field Bindweed Biology and Management Syrian Bean-Caper
Field Horsetail and Related Species Tansy Ragwort
Giant Hogweed Texas Blueweed
Gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) The Speedwells
Hawkweeds Tuber Oatgrass
Hedgeparsley Velvetleaf
Hoary Cress and Related Whitetops Western Wildcucumber
Indigobush Wild Carrot
Johnsongrass Wild Chervil
Knapweed Wild Four O'Clock
Kochia Wild Garlic
Longspine Sandbur Wild Proso Millet
Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) Yellow Starthistle
Mediterranean Sage (Salvia aethiopis L.) Yellow Toadflax & Dalmatian Toadflax